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Cancer Treatment in India


cancer treatment in india

Cancer is a deadly disease; it claims to be one of the highest global causes of deaths worldwide. Cancer in India, claims approximately 12 lakh new cases every year out of which 8 lakhs lose their battle against this fatal disease, the reason being unawareness and expensive treatment. However, one can recover from cancer if they have the opportunity to get timely diagnosis and treatment.

India is the right destination for cancer treatment as all major cities have wide treatment options with high success rates and the best part is it will not burn a hole in your pocket thus, making cancer treatment in India affordable.

Treatments in India


There are three major treatments- Surgery, Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy being widely used to treat different types of cancer.

The type of treatment methods available in India for treating cancer are:

I. Surgery


One of the best cancer treatments in India includes Surgery which is the primary treatment option to treat cancer.

It is a medical procedure in which surgeons use small thin knives called scalpels to remove the cancerous tumour and the nearby healthy tissues during an operation to prevent the cancer cells from spreading.

cancer-surgery

The extent of surgery and its successful outcome depends on the type of cancer, its size, stage, distribution and location.

In India, we have acclaimed surgeons who can perform complex surgeries. The cancer hospitals over here are equipped with latest technology and equipment required to perform surgeries.

The latest surgical procedures like minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery in Indiais available at affordable costs.

Following are the reasons why surgery is performed as a cancer treatment:

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These types of surgery vary based on the purpose of the surgery, part of the body that requires surgery, the amount of tissue to be removed, and in some cases, patient’s preference is also considered. The two major types of the surgeries are:

  1. Open Surgery – In this procedure, the surgeon makes a large cut to remove the tumour and nearby tissues and lymph nodes.
  2. Minimally Invasive Surgery – Here, the surgeon makes few small cuts through which a long, thin tube with a tiny camera is inserted. This allows the surgeon to see and remove the tumour and surrounding healthy tissues.
  3. Some of the other types of surgeries are:

  4. Cryosurgery – This surgery technique uses liquid nitrogen, which is extremely cool, to kill cancer cells by placing it on the skin or inserting it into the body via an instrument.
  5. Laser Surgery – The beams of light energy are used to shrink or destroy the very small cancer tumours from sites that are difficult to reach.
  6. Electrosurgery – Electric current is used to kill cancer cells in this procedure.
  7. Microscopically Controlled Surgery – This surgical procedure is useful in case cancer affects delicate parts of the body such as the eye. Layers of the skin is removed and examined under the microscope until cancer cells cannot be detected.

Surgery is a highly successful option for cancer treatment in India, but some of the common side-effects caused by surgery includes: pain, infection, bleeding, damage to nearby tissues and reactions to the anaesthesia.


Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an aggressive form of chemical drug therapy in which anticancer drugs are given to stop the cancer cells from growing rapidly.

It basically interferes with the cancer cell’s ability to divide and reproduce.

Chemotherapy is considered as Systematic treatment and can work throughout the whole body unlike Surgery and Radiation Therapy which focuses on certain areas.

Thus, it can kill cancer cells which have spread to other parts of the body i.e. which have metastasized.

Chemotherapy is a successful option for cancer treatment in India. Here, highly skilled medical oncologists have tremendous knowledge about this treatment and have effectively combined it with other therapies to make it more effective. Also, the latest advancements and new drugs are easily available in India.

The chemotherapy cost in India is very less as compared to other countries as patients can save at least 50% of the cost in hospitals over here.

Following are some of the methods of giving chemotherapy:

  1. Orally – Drugs are given either in capsules or liquid form which patients can take orally.
  2. Intravenous Chemotherapy - The drugs can be injected directly into the vein with a needle.
  3. Topically - It can be applied on the skin as a cream.
  4. Direct Placement – This method is used to treat brain tumor. Here, chemptherapy can be given via lumbar puncture or device that is placed under the scalp.

Chemotherapy doses are given in cycles, it can be a one-day treatment or can go on for fourteen days depending on the type and stage of cancer.

This treatment option is recommended by the doctors with the objective of curing the cancer permanently. And in case, cure is not possible, chemo is used to keep cancer from further growing and spreading. It can also be used as palliative care to ease the symptoms caused by cancer

Chemotherapy treatment is used as:

infographic-2 infographic-2

It is an invasive treatment option and can have adverse effects because it not only targets cancer cells but also healthy cells.Like any treatment it has some risks and side effects going in, to know about them you can click here.


Radiation Therapy is the type of cancer treatment in which high doses of energy beams or radiation like X-rays, Gamma rays, protons or electron beams are used to kill the cancer cells and destroy their ability to grow and divide.

Radiation works by making small breaks in the DNA inside the cells and slows down the growth of the cancer cells by damaging the DNA.

You might be wondering what India has to offer related to Radiation Therapy. The cancer hospitals in India have all the latest state-of-the-art-technologies which are at par with other developed countries.

We are among those few countries that have Proton Therapy, the recent advancement in Radiation Therapy. Also,the cost of Radiation therapy is far more cost-effective in India compared to other countries.

There are two ways of giving Radiation Therapy:

1. External Beam Radiation Therapy- A machine is used in this procedure which directs the radio waves at the tumour from outside the body. The energy beams are generated by a linear accelerator and are targeted to destroy the cancer cells. This procedure does not harm surrounding healthy tissues. Also, it may be used to relieve the symptoms of advanced cancer stage.


Radiation Therapy

2. Internal Radiation Therapy - It is also known as Brachytherapy. A radioactive substance such as seeds, pellets, ribbons, wires, needles, tubes or capsules are implanted inside the body near the cancerous tumour to shrink and kill the cancer cells.

Brachytherapy

Radiation Therapy is given in cycles for a period of one to eight weeks depending on the type and stage of cancer. It is usually given once a day, five times a week and it takes 15-30 minutes each time.

Radiation Therapy can be used as:

infographic-7 infographic-7

Although, radiation therapy is a very effective treatment option, but it has its own side effects and risks associated with it. To learn about all the risks and side-effects assosiated with radiation therapy, you can click here.



Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a form of cancer treatment in India that uses the bodys natural defences to prevent, control and eliminate cancer.

The other name for Immunotherapy is Biological Therapy. This therapy works by stimulating the immune system to work harder to attack the cancer cells by using substances made by the body or in a laboratory such as man-made immune system proteins to improve immune system function.

The cost of immunotherapy is usually high, but in India it is comparatively more cost-effective compared to other countries. Due to research, we don’t have to import drugs from other developed countries as we are developing them at our state-of-the-art advanced laboratories which have reduced its cost.

Following are the methods of giving immunotherapy:

  1. Oral – The drugs can be given either in the form of pills or capsules that patient can swallow.
  2. Intravenous (IV) – It can be injected directly into a vein through injection.
  3. Topical – Immunotherapy can be given in the form of a cream that can be rub onto the skin. It is used for early stage of skin cancer.
  4. Intravesical – A liquid drug is put directly into the bladder in this treatment approach.

The types of immunotherapy are:

  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Checkpoint inhibitors
  • T-cell therapy
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Cytokines

This therapy is given in cycles which are once in three weeks. This treatment is given till the cancer is cured, so it can go on from a few months to maximum of two years.

Immunotherapy is not widely used as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy but it has its own benefits and risks.

The benefits are:

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But there are risks and side effects associated with this treatment option, which you can learn more about through clicking here, the most common ones are such as:

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BMT

It is a medical procedure in which the bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by the blood cancer/disorders is replaced with healthy bone marrow.

The transplant involves extracting the healthy stem cells, filtering those cells and putting them back in the patient’s bone marrow or the donor’s where it can produce new blood cells.

This procedure is also known as Stem Cell Transplant.

Bone marrow helps the body to make enough white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets to avoid infection, anaemia or bleeding disorders. And this procedure is specifically performed in cases of Blood cancers/disorders.

Why India can be a preferred place to get bone marrow transplantation? In India, there are internationally acclaimed BMT centres where extremely trained and experienced doctors perform complex transplants. Also, the technology and infrastructure for BMT in India is on par with the developed countries.

One of the biggest draw for most international patient is also the cost of bone marrow transplant in India. As this is a complex cancer treatment which demands a specific infrastructure, the overall cost of the treatment is high. But in India, it is more cost-effective compared to other countries.

Thus, patients suffering from cancer can get the best cancer treatment in India.

There are two major types of Bone Marrow Transplant:

  1. Autologous bone marrow transplant – In this procedure the patient’s own healthy stem cells are taken out before they are treated with high doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
    After the treatment, the cells are infused back into the body so that they can start making healthy blood cells to replace the damaged ones.
  2. Allogenic bone marrow transplant – In this procedure, stem cells are taken from the donor based on their HLA type i.e. donor’s genes should match with that of the patients.

VI. Hormone Therapy


Hormone-Therapy-1

Hormone Therapy is a form of systematic therapy that adds, blocks or removes those hormones which help the cancer cells to grow. This therapy is specifically used in cases of prostate and breast cancer.

Prostate and Breast cancers are one of the common cancers that affect the people in India. And hormonal therapy is one of the crucial options available for cancer treatment in India.

The country has the best doctors who have extensive knowledge about this therapy and are successfully treating patients with it. Also, constant research and development is being done to introduce the new drugs and improve the existing ones.

The Hormone Therapy reduces the risk of cancer returning and may prevent or relieve the symptoms caused by the cancer. The hormone levels in the body are changed by removing the organ or gland responsible for producing hormones, treating the gland or the organ with radiation to destroy the hormone-producing cells or through hormonal drug therapy in which taking drugs to interfere or suppress the production of hormones.

This therapy can be used as:

infographic-7

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Hormone Therapy may be given in the form of

  • pills, or
  • by a shot, or
  • surgery can be performed to remove the organs that produce the hormones.

Since, this procedure blocks the body’s ability to produce hormones or interferes with their behaviour, it can cause some unwanted side effects. Further, some of these side effects may differ because of the gender.

VII. Targeted Therapy


Targeted Therapy

Targeted Therapy uses drugs that target cancer’s specific genes, proteins or the tissues that are contributing in the cancer’s growth and survival.

As targeted therapy, targets specific genetic influencing the growth of cancer cells. It is different from Chemotherapy, where it targets fast-growing cells throughout the body irrespective of whether they are cancerous or not.

This treatment option has evolved into a blessing for cancer patients as it is an effective therapy for treating various types of cancer. And this latest cancer treatment in India is available at cost which is affordable. Also, continuous research is being done to find out the effectiveness of targeted therapy when combined with other therapies specifically, chemotherapy.

Types of Targeted Therapy include:

  1. Monoclonal Antibodies – These antibodies attack the target on the outside of the cells. Sometimes, they are used to deliver radiation and chemodirectly to the cancer cells.
  2. Small Molecule Drugs – These drugs are so small that they can easily slip inside the cancer cells and destroy them.

This treatment option is used to:

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Besides the best cancer hospital, the most enquired query is the cost of cancer treatment in India. Well, the cost will drastically range depending upon the type of cancer you have and its stage/grade. For your reference, we have explained in complete detail, the cost of Cancer Treatment in India with all the different types of treatments here.


Cancer Hospitals in India by types of Cancer


As per the research, targeted therapy is expected to be less toxic than chemotherapy drugs as cancer cells are more dependent on targets than normal cells. But it does have some side effects and common ones are diarrhoea and liver problems.

Blood cancer
Prostate cancer
lung cancer

breast cancer
Colorectal cancer
pancreatic cancer

liver cancer
Brain tumor cancer
stomach cancer

oral cancer
Cervical cancer
gall-bladder cancer

skin cancer
Eye cancer

You might be wondering:

Which hospital should I go to?

Where can I get the best treatment at affordable cost?

Is cancer curable?

What is the success rate?

You can get answers for all your queries by consulting the best oncologists in India who specialize in cancer treatment.

Organ Specific Treatments


Cancer can occur in all the organs. The treatment plan will differ for different organs based on their site and the intensity of treatment they require.

We have further provided the organ specific treatment options for some of the most common types of cancer affecting people all over the world:


blood-cancer

Blood Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


Blood cancer starts in the bone marrow, which is responsible for producing blood. It occurs when normal blood cells functioning is interrupted due to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. The blood cancer affects the productivity of the blood cells.

In India, blood cancer cases are huge and the country accounts to have approximately 92,000 new cases and 70,000 deaths every year according to Globocan 2018. Also, one of the types of blood cancer – Leukaemia is ranked 9th among the top 20 cancers affecting Indians.

Leukaemia, Lymphoma and Myeloma are three main types of blood cancer.

In Leukaemia, the abnormal white blood cells are produced in high numbers which starts hampering the bone marrow’s ability to produce red blood cells and platelets.

In Lymphoma, the blood cancer affects the lymphatic system. The lymphoma cells grow abnormally in the lymph nodes and other tissues which impair the immune system.

Myeloma, this type of cancer affects the plasma cells, which are white blood cells that are responsible for producing antibodies in our body to fight against diseases. As a result, it weakens the immune system.

Further, the blood cancer has four stages and the treatment depends on the stages, the type of cancer, patient’s age, and the rate at which the cancer is progressing, the site of cancer and whether it has spread. The options available for blood cancer treatment in India are:

Bone Marrow Transplantation – This treatment is used to replace the damaged cells with healthy bone marrow stem cells. It is used to cure many chronic diseases like blood cancer.

Chemotherapy – This procedure uses anticancer drugs to stop cancer cells from growing in the body and thismay be used in combination with radiation therapy.

Radiation Therapy –It is used to destroy cancer cells and give relief from pain and discomfort. This treatment can also be given before stem cell transplant.



prostate-cancer

Prostate Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland which is responsible for producing the seminal fluid that helps in nourishment and transportation of sperm. The prostate gland is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Age and family history are the main risk factors for this cancer.

It is a slow growing cancer and is not easily detected because patients do not have significant symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. That’s the reason most men die of prostate cancer because it’s dangerous.

Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer death amongst men. This cancer is constantly and rapidly increasing in India and the studies show that the number of prostate cancer cases will be doubled by 2020. According to the reports of Globocan, 25,700 new cases and 17,200 deaths were reported in the year 2018.

There are four stages of prostate cancer and the options available for prostate cancer treatment in India are:

Active surveillance – When cancer is in early stage and has not grown then it is closely monitored and regular PSA blood levels and biopsies are done to check the growth of cancer.

Surgery –In this procedure, prostate gland and the surrounding tissues and lymph nodes are removed. It can be done either by robot-assisted surgery or by making an incision in the abdomen.

Radiation Therapy – The cancer cells are killed either through external beam radiation in which energy beams are used or through brachytherapy in which radioactive seeds are placed in the prostate tissue.

Hormone Therapy – This treatment is used to stop the testosterone from growing as it helps cancer cells to multiply.

Chemotherapy – It is used to kill or stop cancer cells from growing. Chemotherapy is used when cancer is in advanced stage or when it has spread to other parts of the body.

Biological Therapy – In this treatment, some of the immune cells of the patient are taken and given boost and injected back in the body to fight against prostate cancer.

Cryosurgery – During cryosurgery, small needles are inserted in the prostate and cold gas is inserted through these needles so that the surrounding tissue gets frozen. Again, a second gas is inserted through the needles to reheat the tissue. This cycle of freezing and heating kills the cancer cells.


Lung-cancer

Lung Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


Lung Cancer is a type of cancer which starts in the lungs. There are two types of lung cancer:

Non-small Cell Lung Cancer – It is the most common type of lung cancer, also known as Adenocarcinoma. It usually starts in the outer parts of the lungs. This cancer type can also start in the cells that line the passages of the respiratory tract known as Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Further, it also includes other types like Large Cell Carcinoma, Sarcoma, and Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.

Small Cell Lung Cancer –This type starts in the cells that line the bronchi. It is less common and spreads faster than Non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer in India is the second most common cancer in men and the fifth most common cancer in both men and women together. According to Globocan, approximately 68000 new cases were reported, and 64000 deaths were caused due to this cancer in 2018.

The lung cancer treatment in India includes options like:

Surgery – It’s the best way to treat Non-small cell lung cancer. Depending on how the cancer has spread, the surgeons may either remove a small section, a large section, the entire lobe of one lung or the entire lung if the cancer has spread in the whole lung.

Chemotherapy – It is used to shrink tumors or kill any cancer cells left after the surgery. Also, it can be used as palliation to relieve pain and other symptoms in advanced stage of lung cancer.

Radiation Therapy – High energy X-rays are used to destroy cancer cells or to relieve pain and symptoms. This treatment can be used for both Small cell lung cancer and Non-small cell lung cancer.

Targeted Therapy – It is a new treatment approach that works by targeting specific cancer cells either by killing or preventing them from growing.

Immunotherapy – This treatment approach uses immune system to fight against cancer. It interferes and stops the cancer cells from producing proteins that blinds the immune system cells. It is advised for advanced stage of lung cancer.

Radiofrequency Ablation – In this treatment, doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin till it touches the tumor. Then, an electric current is passed through the electrode to heat and kill the cancer cells.



Breast-cancer

Breast Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


This cancer develops in the cells of the breasts either in lobules which are the glands that produce milk or ducts which are the pathways that carry the milk from glands to the nipple. It can occur in both men and women. The risk factors for developing breast cancer includes age, gender as its mostly common in women, hereditary, hormonal causes and lifestyle and dietary causes.

Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among women in India accounting for 27% of all cancers in women. In India, every 4 minutes,a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer and every 8 minutes a woman dies of breast cancer.It is likely that 1 in 28 women will develop breast cancer during their lifetime.

As per the reports of Union health ministry, breast cancer ranks as the number one cancer among Indian females with rate as high as 25.8 per 100,000 women and mortality of 12.7 per 100,000 women.

The breast cancer treatment in India include options such as:

Surgery – This is done to remove the tumor and surrounding tissues, called as Lumpectomy or breast-conserving surgery or to remove the whole breast, called as Mastectomy. Also, there are different types of Lumpectomies and Mastectomies performed.

Radiation Therapy – In this treatment, high energy waves are used to kill cancer cells. If a breast conservation surgery is performed, then radiation therapy is compulsory. There are two ways in which this treatment can be given:

  • External Beam Radiation: A large machine is used to aim the energy waves at the patient’s body
  • Brachytherapy: A radioactive material is placed inside the body to give radiation.

Chemotherapy – Two types of chemotherapy is given to kill the cancer cells.

  • Adjuvant Chemotherapy: If cancer has a high risk of returning or spreading to another part of the body then this option is used.
  • Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy: If the tumor is large, thenchemotherapy is given before surgery to shrink the tumor so that it becomes easy to remove during the surgery.

Hormone Therapy – This is the only option for patients who cannot undergo surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It is used to prevent hormones called estrogen and progesterone from helping cancer cells to grow. Thus, it’s also called as Hormone blocking therapy.

Targeted Therapy – This therapy can destroy specific breast cancer cells that have high levels of a protein called HER2 which helps in the growth of cancer cells.



Colon-cancer

Colon Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


In Colon Cancer, tumours grow in the large intestine (colon). It starts when small benign clumps of cells called as polyps are formed in the colon and over some time these can become colon cancer.It is sometimes called Colorectal cancer because colon and rectal cancer may occur together, and colorectal cancer originates in the rectum.

In India, Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and third most common cancer in women. According to Globocan 2018 report around 28000 new cases were reported and 20000 deaths were caused due to colon cancer in the year 2018.

The options available for colon cancer treatment in India are:

Surgery – There are many surgical options depending on the stage of cancer.

For early-stage colon cancer –

  • Colonoscopy: Through colonoscopy, small cancer tumour or early-stage cancer located in polyp is removed.
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection: In this case larger polyps are removed along with small amount of the inner lining of the colon. That’s why this procedure is called Endoscopic mucosal resection.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery: When polyps cannot be removed during colonoscopy then, laparoscopic surgery is performed through small incisions made in the abdominal wall.

For advanced-stage colon cancer –

  • Partial Colectomy: In this procedure, the surgeon removes the part of the colon containing cancerous tissues along with a margin of normal tissue on either side of the cancer. Also, the doctor will be able to reconnect the healthy portions of the colon or rectum.
  • Colostomy: When it’s not possible to reconnect the healthy portions of the colon and rectum, then Colostomy is performed. In this procedure, an opening in the wall of the abdomen is created from the bowel to eliminate the stool into a bag.
  • Lymph node removal: In this case, nearby lymph nodes are removed during surgery.

Chemotherapy –Here, drugs are used to destroy the cancer cells. It travels throughout the body and is more effective in killing cells that have spread. This treatment is usually given after surgery, but in some cases, it can be given before the surgery to shrink the tumours. Also, it can be given to relieve the symptoms of colon cancer.

Radiation Therapy – In this treatment option, powerful energy waves are either used to kill cancer cells, to shrink tumours or to relieve symptoms of colon and rectum cancer. Sometimes, it is used in combination with chemotherapy.

Targeted Therapy – It is a type of treatment that focuses on killing specific cancer cells by using drugs and other substances that identify and attack such cells. It is sometimes given along with chemotherapy. Only advanced stage cancer cases are given this treatment.

Immunotherapy – This treatment option is for those who have advanced colon canceror the cancer is still growing despite being given chemotherapy. The purpose of using this treatment is to use the person’s own immune system to attack cancer cells.



Pancreatic-cancer

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


Pancreatic cancer starts in the tissues of pancreas which is placed behind the stomach and spine. It is responsible for creating pancreatic juices that helps in digestion, and hormones and insulin that helps in controlling blood-sugar levels.

The pancreatic cancer can affect either the endocrine or the exocrine glands in the pancreas. Also, it may spread to the nearby organs like liver, abdominal wall, lungs, bones or lymph nodes.

In India, the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer is lower as compared to the west. According to the National Cancer Registry Programme, around 8440 and 6090 new cases of pancreatic cancer affecting men and women will be reported by 2020.

The options available for pancreatic cancer treatment in India are:

Surgery – There are two types of surgeries performed to treat pancreatic cancer.

  • Curative Surgery: If the cancer is in the early stage and has not spread then, surgery is performed to remove the tumour by removing part or whole of pancreas.
  • Palliative Surgery: If the cancer has spread and cannot be removed, then number of operations may be performed to relieve the symptoms of the disease.

Radiation Therapy –Radiation is given through a machine which is directed to the specific points in the body. In this process, high energy electromagnetic waves are used to stop the tumour from growing or to shrink it. Also, it is often used in combination with chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy – In this process, drugs are taken either through the mouth or injected into a vein or muscle to stop the cancer cells from growing by killing them. It can be given in combination with radiation therapy (chemoradiation) or targeted therapy.

Targeted Therapy –It is a type of treatment that uses drugs to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. It’s not commonly used and is still under clinical trials.

Immunotherapy – This treatment is also under clinical trials. But it may be used for small percentage of patients with certain genetic mutations. In this treatment, patient’s immune system is used to fight against the disease.



Liver-cancer

Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


Liver cancer begins in the liver. There are many types of liver cancer.However, the most common type is hepatocellular carcinoma whereas the less common types are intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma. Also, cancer that spreads to the liver from other organs is more common than cancer that begins in the liver cells.

In India, Liver cancer is the 12th most common cancer. According to Globocan 2018 report, there were around 27700 new cases reported and 25700 deaths were caused due to liver cancer in the year 2018.

The liver cancer treatment in India includes options like:

Surgery – Two types of surgery can be performed to treat liver cancer –

  • Surgery to remove the tumour: The surgeon will remove some part of the liver where cancer tissues are present and a small portion of healthy tissues surrounding it so that chances of cancer returning can be avoided.
  • Liver transplant surgery: In this treatment, the diseased liver affected by cancer is removed and replaced with a healthy liver from a donor. This option is only for small percentage of people with early-stage liver cancer.

Cryoablation – This process uses extreme cold to kill cancer cells by placing an instrument, Cryoprobe containing liquid nitrogen directly onto the liver tumour.

Radiofrequency Ablation – A needle is placed through the skin in the tumour and a high frequency electrical current is passed through the needle to heat and destroy the cancer cells. This option is used in cases when surgery is not the option.

Percutaneous Ethanol Injection – In this case, pure alcohol is injected directly into the liver to destroy the cancer cells. This option is rarely used.

Chemotherapy – Chemoembolization is a type of chemotherapy treatment in which anti-cancer drugs are supplied directly into the liver. This process blocks the hepatic artery which is responsible for supplying blood to cancer tissues. As blocking the blood supply will destroy the cancer cells.

Radiation Therapy – In this treatment, a machine directs energy beams at a specific point on the patient’s body which destroys or shrinks the tumours. For advanced stage liver cancer, it might help in controlling the symptoms. This treatment also includes a technique called Stereotactic Radiosurgery that simultaneously focuses many beams of radiation at one point in the body.

Targeted Drug Therapy – This process works only for people who have genetic mutations in their cancer cells. During this treatment, specific cells are targeted to stop their growth and to destroy them.

Immunotherapy – This treatment option is designed to boost the body’s natural defences to fight against cancer. Some immunotherapy drugs are used to treat liver cancer while others are under clinical trials.


8. Brain Cancer treatment in India


Brain-cancer

Brain Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


In Brain Cancer, a tumour or growth of abnormal cells occurs in the brain. The cancer cells grow to form a mass or cancer tissue that interferes with the brain functions. It can begin in the brain known as primary brain tumour or can begin in other parts of the body and spread to the brain known as secondary or metastatic brain tumour.

The incidence of brain tumour is rising in India. As per Globocan 2018 report, Brain Cancer is ranked 10th most common cancer. Approximately 28200 new cases and 24000 deaths are reported annually.

The options available for Brain cancer treatment in India are:

Surgery – It is the primary line of treatment in which as much of the tumour is safely removed without impacting the brain functions. This treatment may also relieve some symptoms caused by brain cancer. Also, it may be combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Radiation Therapy – Radiation Therapy kill the cancer cells with high energy beams.It allows doctors to increase the dosage and target radiation to the brain tumour, while reducing damage to the healthy brain tissues. There are two ways of giving radiation therapy – internal and external. The most common one is external-beam radiation therapy in which radiation is given through a machine outside the body. The other one is internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy in which radiation is given using implants inside the body.

Chemotherapy – In this treatment, the drugs can be taken orally in the form of a pill or injected into a vein to destroy the brain tumour. This therapy is usually given after the surgery and may be given in combination with radiation therapy if the tumour comes back after initial treatment.

Targeted Therapy – This therapy targets specific genes or abnormalities in the brain tumour cells that contributes to the tumour’s growth and survival. It is often combined with chemotherapy.


9. Stomach Cancer treatment in India


Stomach-cancer

Stomach Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


Stomach cancer is also known as Gastric cancer. The cancer cells form in the mucus-producing cells which are present in the inner lining of the stomach which can also spread to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, bones and a woman’s ovaries.

Majority of stomach cancer are a type called Adenocarcinoma. Other types are Lymphoma, Gastric Sarcoma and Neuroendocrine tumours.

Stomach cancer is rare as compared to other types of cancer. Also, it is one of the dangerous types of cancer because it is difficult to diagnose stomach cancer as most people don’t show symptoms in the early stages. Thus, making it more difficult to treat.

Stomach Cancer is claimed to be the 4th most common cancer in India and 3rd most common cancer in men. According to Globocan 2018, around 57400 new cases were registered and 51500 deaths were caused due to this cancer.

The options available for stomach cancer treatment in India are:

Surgery – The surgery is performed to remove the entire stomach cancer, nearby lymph nodes, and a margin of a nearby healthy tissue to reduce the chances of cancer returning as much as possible. There are various types of surgical procedures used such as –

  • Endoscopic Mucosal Resection: Very small cancer tissues in the lining of the stomach are removed using Endoscopy.
  • Subtotal Gastrectomy: The surgeon removes only the portion affected by cancer.
  • Total Gastrectomy: Here the surgeon removes the entire stomach and the surrounding tissues.
  • Lymph nodes removal: Nearby lymph nodes are removed to prevent the chances of cancer returning.
  • Relieve signs and symptoms: In advanced stage, surgery is performed to relieve signs and symptoms of the cancer.

Radiation Therapy –This therapy uses high energy radiation to destroy the cancer cells and also keep them from growing. If it’s given before surgery to shrink the tumours, it is known as Neoadjuvant Radiation. In case it is used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells, then it is known as Adjuvant Radiation.

Chemotherapy – It is a drug treatment which uses chemicals to kill cancer cells thatmay have spread beyond the stomach. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy is given before surgery to shrink the tumours so that it becomes easy for the surgeon to remove the tumours. Adjuvant Chemotherapy is given post-surgery to kill any cancer cells that may have remained.

Targeted Therapy – This treatment method identifies specific abnormalities in the cancer cells and attack them without harming the normal cells.


10. Oral Cancer treatment in India


Oral-cancer

Oral Cancer Treatment Hospital India:


Oral cancer is also known as Mouth cancer. It develops in the tissues of the mouth (oral cavity) or throat. It can occur on the lips, gums, tongue, inner lining of the cheeks, roof of the mouth, floor of the tongue, in the tonsils and in the salivary glands.

The risk factors for oral cancer include smoking, chewing tobacco, consumption of alcohol, family history, excessive sun exposure and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.

India accounts for one third of oral cancer cases in the world. Here, 20 per 100000 populations are affected by this cancer which is roughly 30% of all cancers. According to Globocan 2018 report, approximately 120000 new cases were reported and 73000 died because of oral cancer in 2018.

The treatment options available for oral cancer in India are:

Surgery – The surgeon will remover the tumour and the cancerous lymph nodes along with tissues around the mouth and neck. Also, surgery may be done to reconstruct the mouth to help regain the ability to talk and eat.

Radiation Therapy – High energy X-rays and proton beams are used to destroy cancer cells and stop them from reproducing. For early stage oral cancer, radiation therapy is given after surgery and for advanced stage, radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy is given.

Chemotherapy – In this treatment, drugs are given to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy, so they are given in combination especially if there is a chance of cancer returning.

Targeted Therapy – It treats oral cancer by targeting specific cancer cells that are responsible for fuelling the growth. It can be effective in both early and advanced stages.

Immunotherapy – This treatment uses the patient’s immune system to fight against cancer by giving drugs that strengthen the immune system. It’s usually advised in advanced stages of cancer.


11. Cervical Cancer


Cervical-cancer

Cervical cancer occurs in the cervix which is the narrow opening of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection is the main cause of cervical cancer.

Around 80 to 90 % cervical cancers are Squamous cell cancers. The second most common type is Adenocarcinoma, accounting for remaining 10 to 20 %. Women having age above 30 years have more risk of developing cervical cancer.But this cancer is highly preventable due to availability of screening tests and vaccine to prevent HPV infections.

Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in India according to Globocan 2018 reports. In India alone, it accounts for one-fourth of global cervical cancer cases. More than 85 % of cervical cancer patients are from the age group of 40 years and above. The maximum number of cases amounting to 27.37 % of all cancer cases were reported in age group of 50-59 years.

The options available for cervical cancer treatment in India are:

Surgery – Early-stage cervical cancer are commonly treated with surgery in case the tumour has not spread beyond the cervix. There are some types of surgical procedures used such as:

  • Conization: This procedure is also called as cone biopsy because it is used to remove cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix that can be only seen with a microscope which is known as microinvasive cancer. Conization is performed with a knife, thin heated wire loop or laser.
  • Simple Hysterectomy: Surgery is performed to remove the tumour along with the cervix and the uterus. This option is used for mostly early-stage cancer.
  • Radical Hysterectomy: In this procedure, the cancerous tumour along with the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina is removed. Also, the ovaries, fallopian tubes or nearby lymph nodes may be removed.

Radiation Therapy - In this therapy, high energy x-rays and protons are aimed at the body to destroy cancer cells. It may be given before the surgery to shrink the tumours. Radiation Therapy is often combined with chemotherapy to control the cancer in the pelvis with the objective of curing the cancer without performing surgery.

Chemotherapy - It uses medications to treat cervical cancer. It kills or slows down the growth of the cancer cells. Doctors often combine low doses of chemotherapy with the radiation therapy, called Chemoradiation to increase the effectiveness of the radiation. High doses of chemotherapy are given to control the advanced stage of cervical cancer.

Targeted Therapy - This treatment targets the specific genes and tissues that help the cancer cells to grow and survive. It blocks the growth and stops them from spreading without harming the healthy cells. When cervical cancer reoccurs then, targeted therapy is given in combination with chemotherapy.

Immunotherapy - It is also called as Biologic Therapy. It is designed to boost the body’s immune system to fight the cancer cells. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve the natural defences of the body.


12. Gallbladder Cancer


Gallbladder-cancer

Gallbladder Cancer occurs when the cancer cells are formed in the gallbladder. The types of gallbladder cancer include adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcomas but the most common one is adenocarcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose gallbladder cancer as it often shows no signs or symptoms.

Gallbladder cancer incidence is higher in the Indian population as compared globally.The highest number of cases are reported in northern India. According to Globocan, around 26,000 new cases and 19,680 deaths were reported in 2018. Gallbladder cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in women. The incidence of gallbladder cancer in females in northern India is 9/1,00,000 per year which is high in comparison to 1/1,00,000 per year in western and southern India which is very low.

The treatment options for gallbladder cancer includes:

Surgery – After Gallbladder cancer is diagnosed, the surgeon will conduct tests to check whether patient is fit enough for the surgery. Two types of surgery are there that can be performed to remove the gallbladder.

  • Cholecystectomy: The early stage gallbladder cancer which is confined to the gallbladder is treated by removing the gallbladder. To treat gallbladder cancer, cholecystectomy is a common treatment option.
  • Radical Gallbladder Resection: The advanced stage gallbladder cancer which has extended beyond the gallbladder and into the liver and other organs of the body is treated by removing the gallbladder, liver tissues, pancreas, the common bile duct, blood vessels, ligaments between liver and intestine and the nearby lymph nodes.
  • Palliative Surgery: Sometimes this type of surgery may be performed to relieve the symptoms caused by the gallbladder cancer in case the tumour cannot be completely removed. The palliative surgery may relieve the blockage of the bile ducts or intestines or may stop bleeding.

Radiation Therapy – External Radiation Therapy is used for the treatment of gallbladder cancer in which radiation is given externally through a machine aimed at the body. This therapy is used to kill the cancer cells or stop them from growing. Sometimes, the doctor may give radiation therapy to relieve the symptoms like removing the blockage in the bile duct or stopping the cancer from spread to other parts of the body. This process is known as Palliative Radiotherapy.

Chemotherapy –It is a Systemic Therapy in which drugs enter the bloodstream to kill the cancer cells throughout the body and hinder their ability to grow and divide. Usually, it is used as a palliative care treatment for gallbladder cancer after surgery. It can also be given before surgery as neoadjuvant therapy to shrink the tumours so that it becomes easy to remove through operation.

Palliative Therapy – This treatment is used to control or reduce the symptoms caused by advanced gallbladder cancer. It includes several therapies such as Biliary Stent or Biliary Catheter, Biliary Bypass and alcohol injection.


13. Skin Cancer


Skin-cancer

Skin Cancer is one of the most common of all human cancers worldwide. It occurs when skin cells grow abnormally. It most often affects the skin that is exposed to the sun, but it can also affect the other areas of the skin that is not exposed to the sun.

Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma and Melanoma are the three main types of Skin Cancer.

Skin cancer is very common worldwide but it is a less common malignancy in India as it is less than 1% of all the diagnosed cancers over here. Though the absolute number of cases is estimated to be huge because of the larger population base. Also, Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest malignancy all over the world but in India, Squamous cell carcinoma is reported to be the most prevalent type of skin cancer.

In India, according to the Globocan 2018, approximately 3048 new cases and 2053 deaths have been reported due to skin cancer.

The Skin cancer treatment in India includes options such as:

Chemical Peel – A chemical solution is put on the skin to peel off the top layers of the skin. After that, normal skin regrows in a few weeks. This treatment may be used to treat actinic keratosis.

Surgery – Basal cell carcinoma and Squamous cell carcinoma are mostly treated with surgery. More aggressive cancer like Melanoma may require more extensive surgery.

Some of the surgical procedures used to treat the different types of skin cancer are -

  • Excisional Surgery: This type of treatment may be suitable for any type of skin cancer. The surgeon cut outs the tumour and surrounding healthy tissues.
  • Mohs Micrographic Surgery: This treatment option is used for larger, recurring or difficult-to-treat skin cancers like Basal and Squamous cell carcinomas. In this procedure, the doctor removes the skin layer by layer, examining each layer under the microscope until no more cancer cells are remaining. It is often used in areas where it’s necessary to conserve as much as skin possible like nose, face, etc.
  • Curettage and Electrodesiccation: This procedure is also called as Electrosurgery.The doctor cuts out the tumour with a curette which is a sharp circular blade. Then a needle-shaped electrode is used to destroy the cancer cells with the help of electric current.
  • Cryosurgery: In this treatment, liquid nitrogen is used to freeze and destroy the abnormal tissues after which the tissues falls off naturally.
  • Laser Surgery: This surgical procedure uses a laser beam to remove the tissues by making bloodless cuts.

Radiation Therapy – Tumours are treated by using X-ray beams. This therapy is employed when the tumours are difficult to remove by surgery. There are two types of radiation therapy used by the doctors: Internal and External Radiation Therapy which is mostly used to treat Basal and Squamous cell carcinoma.

Chemotherapy – This cancer treatment method uses medications to kill the cancer cells. For cancers like Basal, Squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis which is limited to the top layer of the skin, creams or lotions are applied to the skin. For cancers that have spread to other parts of the body, systematic chemotherapy is used for treatment.

Photodynamic Therapy – In this treatment option, a combination of drugs and laser light is used to destroy skin cancer cells. This therapy causes little damage to the healthy tissues.

Immunotherapy – It is also known as Biological Therapy that uses body’s immune system to fight against cancer cells. Squamous cell carcinoma is treated by drugs through injection and Basal cell carcinoma is treated by using cream on the skin that contains the drugs which kills the cancerous cells.

Targeted Therapy – This therapy is used to treat Basal cell carcinoma. It uses drugs to target and attack specific cancer cells.


14. Eye Cancer


Eye-cancer

Eye cancer is uncommon worldwide. The cancer cells affect the outer parts of the eye such as the eyelid and can also develop in the tissues surrounding the eyeball or spread to other parts of the body like lung or breasts. The cancer that starts in the eyeball is called Intraocular cancer. The different types of eye cancers are – Squamous cell carcinoma, Melanoma, Lymphoma, out of which Melanoma and Lymphoma are the most common intraocular cancer in adults and Retinoblastoma which is common among children.

The incidence of Eye cancer among Indian population is low.But it’s increasing every year. The statistics show that its 0.3-0.4 percent with 70-80% cases seen in adult and 20-30% cases in children. Nearly, 2000 cases of retinoblastoma are reported in children every year in India.

The treatment options available to treat Eye cancer in India are:

Surgery – In surgery, surgeon removes the tumour from the eye and surrounding healthy tissues depending on the size and the spread of the tumour known as Surgical resection. This treatment option is commonly used to treat Intraocular Melanoma.

The different types of surgical procedures performed by the doctors are:

  • Iridectomy: In this, part of iris is removed.
  • Iridotrabeculectomy: The outer part of the eyeball and iris is removed.
  • Iridocyclectomy: Removal of the part of the iris and ciliary body
  • Endoresection: Removal of the choroidal tumour.
  • Enucleation: In this procedure, surgery is performed to remove the eye and part of the optic nerve. After Surgery, doctor can fit a prosthetic eye to provide a normal appearance.
  • Exenteration: This is an extensive surgery in which the whole eyeball and surrounding structures such as eyelid, muscles, nerves, tissues and fat in the eye socket is removed. Later, the patient can opt for prosthetic eye.

Radiation Therapy – It is used commonly for melanoma treatment. It deploys high-energy radio waves to destroy cancer cells. Radiation Therapy is often combined with surgery for improved vision. The two ways in which radiation therapy can be given are:

  • External Radiation Therapy: In this procedure, gamma rays or protons are directed to the body externally through the machine.
  • Internal Radiation Therapy: Plaque Therapy is one of the types of Radiation Therapy used in which radioactive seeds are attached to a disk called plaque and placed directly near the tumour on the outside wall of the eye. The plaque helps in protecting the surrounding healthy tissues from being destroyed.

Laser Therapy – The doctor uses heat in the form of infrared light or laser beam to shrink the tumour and kill the cancer cells. It is also known as Thermotherapy. Radiation Therapy may be combined with Laser therapy.


Why opt for cancer treatment in India?

India is fast developing and technology adopting country. Research and Development is continuously done to introduce new and revolutionary treatments. The technology used in the hospitals here are at par with those of the developed countries. Disease like Cancer requires extensive treatment which is available in India at economic costs. Thus, people from all over the world can get best cancer treatment in India.

These are some of the factors that has made India a preferred medical destination:

Why you should choose india for cancer treatments

  1. Internationally Accredited Hospitals – There are best cancer hospitals in India which are internationally accredited and have high standards of treatment at par with the hospitals of developed countries.
  2. Skilled and Experienced Doctors – The doctors practising in Indian hospitals are highly acclaimed and skilled. They have many years of experience and are trained at globally recognized institutes. There are best oncologists in Indiawhose expertise are recognized all over the world.
  3. Affordable Treatment – One of the major reasons to choose this country is cancer treatment cost in India is quite affordable. The generic drugs available here is less priced as compared to international countries which helps in reducing the cost. Also, the Indian currency’s value is less than the currencies of countries like USA, UK, etc. But the quality of treatment is not compromised due to low cost. That’s the reason why people from both developed as well as underdeveloped countries come to India for treatment.
  4. Advanced Technology – All the latest technologies that are available in developed countries is available in India as well. The hospitals over here are well-equipped with the latest machines and tools which are required in cancer treatment.
  5. Research & Development – Government of India spends a significant amount of fund in Research & Development of Medical field.
    As of now, the Department Of Biotechnology ministry Of Science & Technology, Government Of India (DBT) has funded more than 300 projects on different aspects on cancer research.
    The main goal of their research is to find:
    biomarkers for early diagnosis; prognosis; molecular pathology of different cancers, target identification, synthetic chemistry for target inhibition, animal- model system development better chemotherapeutic agents etc.
    So, continuous research is being done here by the doctors and scientists to ultimately find the cure for cancer.
  6. Access to New Drugs – Extensive research in medical field has led to development of new and highly effective drugs for cancer treatment. Also, all the drugs which are introduced in the global market are easily accessible in India.
  7. Medical Visa Availability – To get Medical Visas approved in India is faster than other countries due to less waiting time. Also, priority is given to the patients who are suffering from life-threatening diseases.
  8. World Class Services – The hospitals in India have great infrastructure and are famous for their world class services. Premium and personalized services are given to the patients over here such as personal medical staff, language translators, etc which are comparatively economical than developed countries.

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