Knee joint which is the most complicated joint in the body helps you to bend your legs and support the weight of your body.
Knee is made up by the conjunction of three bones, the tibia (shin bone), the femur (thigh bone) and the patella (knee cap). The place where the bones meet is capped by the cartilage which provides lubricating system and cushioning to the area of the knee that bears the weight. When the cartilage that caps the bones in the joint gets destroyed it can causes arthritis.
The surgical procedure where artificial material is used to replace the diseased knee joint is called total knee replacement surgery. Knee-replacement surgery in India is among the best and trusted.
Lifestyle of people in Kolkata causes a lot of impact on their knee joint and it has been observed that many people have to undergo knee replacement in Kolkata.
- Being overweight puts additional stress on the knee and this wears down the joint cartilage.
- Leading a sedentary life causes imbalance in the flexibility and strength of the muscle which leads to pain in the joint.
- Great stress is applied on the knee due to engagement in sports which has repetitive movement.
- Even previous injury to the leg or knee which was not treated properly can cause knee joint pain.
Due to these reasons the orthopedic surgeons in Kolkata are in great demand.
Reasons for knee replacement in Kolkata:
- Pain persists even while resting.
- Unable to straighten or bend the knee due to stiffness.
- Severe inflammation of the knee even after treatment.
- Deformity causing the knee to bend.
Causes for knee replacement:
Arthritis is the most prevalent cause for disability and recurring knee pain. There are many different types of arthritis but the most common ones are:
- Osteoarthritis-It occurs more in women by the age of fifty. This type of arthritis causes mechanical wear and tear of the knee joint.
- Rheumatoid arthritis – It is mostly genetic and is a multi-joint arthritis which causes inflammation and thickness in the synovial membrane surrounding the joint.
- Secondary osteoarthritis – This type of arthritis occurs at a younger age due to fracture, trauma or ligament injury to the knee joint.
- Blood clots formed in the legs can travel to the lungs and cause chest pain, shortness of breath and also shock.
- Infection in the urinary tract.
- Bleeding in the knee joint
- Injury to the blood vessel
- Nerve damage
- Chronic pain and stiffness in the knee
- Infection in the knee
Risks associated with knee replacement surgery:
- Great reduction in the pain or no pain in the joint
- Increase in mobility
- The deformity gets corrected
- Confidence is restored
Expectations after the knee replacement surgery:
Having realistic expectations of the outcome of the surgery is important. With the help of knee replacement surgery there will be significant reduction in knee pain and painless mobility is achieved. But there are limitations like you should avoid sitting on the ground after the surgery.
Even sports that involve contact or running are avoided but they can engage in sports like swimming and golf.
Swimming is very beneficial for people who have undergone knee replacement as it improves the endurance and strength of the muscles and does not put any stress and pressure on the joint which has been replaced.
The orthopedic surgeon in Kolkata will examine the patients before the knee replacement surgery.
- For optimal recovery and outcome the joints like ankle and hip which are adjoining the diseased knee are evaluated because if the adjoined joint is damaged then the replaced knee may not function properly as the adjoined joint may become more painful.
- Medications taken by the patients are reviewed and medicines for anti- inflammation and blood- thinners may be adjusted or discontinued before the surgery.
- Routine tests are done for total evaluation.
- Even the patient’s weight is taken into consideration as excess weight can loosen or dislocate the replaced knee and recovery becomes difficult.
Procedure of knee replacement surgery:
In the beginning of the surgery the patient is administered general anesthesia. The knee replacement surgery will take about 1 to 3 hours.
An incision will be made by the orthopedic surgeon in the knee area and the damaged surface is removed. He will resurface the joint with prosthesis which are made with plastic and metal. The surgeon will use surgical staples or stitches to close the incision. To remove the fluids a drain may be placed at the incision site. A sterile dressing or bandage is used to cover the wound.
The patient is required to participate fully for optimal outcome of the surgery. Physical therapy which is the most important part of rehabilitation will begin 48 hours after the surgery. Initially the patients may feel stiffness, pain and discomfort while undergoing physical therapy. They will resume walking with the help of crutches or walker and slowly learn to navigate the stairs.
Care at home:
At home the patient will have to take care to keep the surgical area dry and clean. The staples or stitches will be removed by the doctor during follow- up visits. The patient will have to continue exercising at home as it will prevent scarring and increase muscle strength.
Exercise gives optimal stability and strength to the joint and reduces recovery time. If there is any injury to the knee then it should be reported to the doctor immediately. The patient should keep a watch for signs of infection such as swelling, redness or severe pain.
The patients should alert the dentists and doctors about their artificial joint as these joints are at risk for bacterial infection from elsewhere in the body if they have to undergo any invasive procedures.
For how long will the replaced knee last?
Knee replacement usually last for around 10 to 15 years but there is no guarantee about it as 5 to 10 percent replacement do not last that long. They may need another replacement. The artificial surface of the bone becomes loose causing the implant to fail. Even the plastic spacer may wear off and need to be replaced with a new one.
90% of people who had knee replacement in Kolkata have gained better mobility and the quality of their life has improved. They feel more satisfied and happier with their life and regret that they did not get the surgery done earlier.